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Co-creation activities often provide opportunities for lay people to participate in innovation processes. To ensure the participation of diverse publics, social, political and economic barriers must be addressed and overcome.

While co-creation becomes more common in European innovation initiatives, there is no standardized method of how co-creation should be put into practice. To ensure meaningful participation, engagement methods must be selected/implemented with care and their results must be taken into account in the further course of the initiative.

While many co-creation initiatives include a variety of actors, power differentials between stakeholders are common. To benefit from the diverse perspectives that co-creation activities bring into conversation with each other, decision power must be shared between different actors.

Co-creation activities can produce different benefits and risks for different co-creation actors. To avoid an unequal distribution of such implications, benefits and risks must be anticipated, questioned and monitored.

While many co-creation initiatives aim to address societal challenges, social innovations (i.e. non-technical solutions) are often excluded from the start. In order to benefit from co-creation as a problem-based approach to innovation, social and technical outcomes must be given equal consideration.

As co-creation becomes more common in research and development projects across Europe, there is a considerable potential for knowledge transfer between different co- creation projects. Such transfer always requires adjustments to match the co- creation approach to the specific socio- cultural context.